Category

Green Infrastructure

Category

Green infrastructure investments helps develop economies of the Belt and Road Initiative in terms of economic connectivity (e.g. through transport infrastructure, energy infrastructure, digital infrastructure). In this section, we provide analyses of linear infrastructure investments in the Belt and Road Initiative.

In essence, the SDGs can only be met if they are an integral part of the development paths of countries under the Belt and Road Initiative (BRI). As the original 65 countries under the BRI collectively account for over 30% of global GDP, 62% of population, and 75% of known energy reserves[1], these ambitions can only be realized if they are included in the BRI. On the environmental front, most BRI countries’ environments are deteriorating and their Nationally Determined Contributions (NDCs) are misaligned with a 2-degree scenario, current development pathways must be changed. Likewise, on social aspects these countries are only on track to reach one of the 17 SDGs.[2] While the BRI is a China led initiative, it is an open ended initiative that any Asian and Pacific country can sign up to and be part of shaping. Given its expected impact, no matter if the perspective is positive…

The original article was published in Chinese by the International Institute of Finance (IIGF) here. Passenger car sales in China have been declining over the past 12 months and experts expect “only” 22 million car sales in China in 2019. This is good news – but not good enough. Car sales in China could drop by 75% to about five million cars per year. This would provide people with better mobility, better lives and achieve the Chinese goal of achieving an ecological civilization and sustainable development that includes economic development. In this article, I will lay out the arguments of how China should seize the opportunity to become the leader in sustainable passenger mobility development through its innovation power in the mobility ecosystem and how green finance can accelerate this development. Sending the wrong signals – 600 million cars by 2050? According to official statistics by the NDRC, China aims…

South Africa is the 2nd largest economy in Africa and one of the African countries which have signed BRI cooperation agreements with China at an early stage. During Chinese President Xi’s visit in September 2018, both countries expressed wishes to strengthen cooperation within the framework of the BRI and the China-Africa Forum to synergize development strategies. [1] In fact, there exist many intersections for China-South Africa complementation and synergy, and South Africa is one of the African countries advocating the synergizing of the BRI in Africa. [2] As the signatory country of the Paris Agreement and an Africa’s economic powerhouse, South Africa has been at the forefront of renewable energy development in Africa. South Africa is rich in solar and wind energy potential and already has the largest installed renewable energy capacity in Africa (as of 2018) when including hydropower into renewable energy, which accounts for about 57% of renewable…

Spain is located on the new Euroasian land bridge in the Silk Road Economic Belt. Although Spain has not yet officially assigned to the BRI cooperation, it has jointly released with China the Joint Statement on Strengthening Comprehensive Strategic Partnership during the visit of China’s President Xi in Nov 2018, in which it expressed its willingness to synergize the BRI with the European Infrastructure Guide Plan and the Euroasia Connectivity, while looking forward to regular dialogues and experience-sharing on promoting the usage of renewable energy and improving energy efficiency as the cornerstones to future sustainable development.[1] The resources and potential of renewable energy in Spain According to the International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA), by the end of 2017, Spain’s installed renewable energy capacity is 47.98 GW. Among them, the capacity of wind power and hydropower are 22.99 GW and 20.03 GW, accounting for 47.9% and 41.7% respectively and in total…

How Multilateral Development Banks (MDB) Characteristics can Address the BRI’s Green Challenges through Financing Solutions, Coordination Activities, and Policy Support Simply put, global climate and environmental goals can only be met if they are an integral part of the development paths of BRI countries. This is true alone because BRI collectively account for over 30%of global GDP, 62% of population, and 75% of known energy reserves. The central challenges is that today most BRI countries’ environments are deteriorating and their climate change ambitions are misaligned with a 2-degree scenario. This is equally the case towards achieving the SDGs for which these countries are only on track to reach one of the 17 SDGs. While there are numerous ways to green the BRI, MDBs can play a key role. As such, this report provides an analysis of the current greenness of the BRI, an identification of key MDB characteristics, and an…

On May 20, 2019, the Ministry of Transport and 12 other ministries jointly issued the Green Travel Action Plan (2019-2022), which will further promote the large-scale application of green vehicles and accelerate the construction of charging infrastructure. China will also continue to improve public transportation facilities, connectivity and information systems that are supporting green mobility. China has been a role model in providing public transport services for its population for many years. Compared with countries of a similar development state, and even compared to most countries with a higher GDP per capita, China has a higher density of modern public transportation services for both urban public transportation services and inter-city public transportation services. Most notably are three developments in China that contributed to that achievement: Development and construction of High-speed trainsDevelopment and construction of subway systemsDevelopment and deployment of electric buses This article will look at China’s green public transportation…

During the 2nd Belt and Road Forum for International Cooperation in May 2017, Chinese President Xi Jinping announced that the China Development Bank (CDB) will provide special loans of 250 billion RMB to support BRI-related infrastructure, production capacity and financial cooperation. The special loans consist of three sub-loans, namely a special loan of 100 billion RMB for BRI infrastructure, a special BRI loan of 100 billion RMB for production capacity cooperation and a special BRI loan of 50 billion RMB for financial cooperation. By the end of 2017, CDB had obtained accumulated assets of nearly 16 trillion RMB and a balance of loans issued exceeding 11 trillion RMB on a global scale.[1] It had formed a business development framework of “one body, two wings”, in which projects in infrastructure, basic industries, pillar industries and strategic emerging industries are the “main body” while promoting coordinated regional development and urbanization and serving Chinese…

Leading up to the 2nd Belt and Road Forum from April 24-26 in Beijing, various working groups, think tanks and government agencies published accounts of the past achievements and challenges of the Belt and Road Initiative (BRI). One of these accounts was given by the Advisory Council of the Belt and Road Forum for International Cooperation (the BRF Advisory Council) in their report “Belt and Road Cooperation: For a Better World”. This article analyzes on the report’s suggestions in regards to green finance and explains some possible backgrounds of the suggestions. This should help to improve the understanding of challenges and thus the successful acceleration of the Belt and Road Initiative. Background and Overview of BRI improvement suggestions by the BRF Advisory Council Since the announcement of the Belt and Road Initiative in 2013, more than 100 countries have signed instruments of cooperation with China to promote the Belt and…

In 2015, for the first time in history, the world reached a series of consensus on sustainable development. From the Addis Ababa Action Agenda to the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development and to the Paris Agreement, an international framework for sustainable development has gradually taken shape. China’s Belt and Road Initiative (BRI) attaches great importance to sustainable development and aims at helping BRI countries realize sustainable development goals. Infrastructure construction is an important part of BRI cooperation. Sustainable infrastructure can support BRI countries to development in a low-carbon and sustainable way. In recent years, the World Bank, the Asian Development Bank (ADB) and other multilateral development banks have made much progress in advocating sustainable infrastructure. Typically, new multilateral development banks led by China, such as the Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank (AIIB) and the New Development Bank (NDB), has labelled sustainable infrastructure development as their core mission. This paper will analyze…

Editorial Note: In many countries, human activities are highly intensive, whereas ecological environment is relatively weak and hardly adaptable to climate changes. Climate finance is therefore of great urgency to improve climate conditions and develop sustainable economy. In September and October 2013, Chinese President Xi Jinping proposed two economic development strategies – the Silk Road Economic Belt and the 21st Century Maritime Silk Road – that are in line with the economic integration in Eurasia. Since then, China, the largest developing country in the world, has been playing an active role not only in addressing climate change by itself, but also in providing assistance to other Eurasian and BRI countries through climate finance projects. The 2nd Belt and Road (BRI) Forum for International Cooperation was held in Beijing on 25-27 April 2019, at which climate change was listed as one of the key priorities for BRI cooperation. The Research Center…